(a) The regulations in this part set forth the criteria under which the agency considers electronic records, electronic signatures, and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records to be trustworthy, reliable, and generally equivalent to paper records and handwritten signatures executed on paper.
(b) This part applies to records in electronic form that are created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved,
or transmitted, under any records requirements set forth in agency regulations. This part also applies to
electronic records submitted to the agency under requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act, even if such records are not specifically identified in agency regulations. However, this part does not apply to paper records that are, or have been, transmitted by electronic means.
(c) Where electronic signatures and their associated electronic records meet the requirements of this part, the
the agency will consider the electronic signatures to be equivalent to full handwritten signatures, initials, and
other general signings as required by agency regulations.
(d) Electronic records that meet the requirements of this part may be used in lieu of paper records, in accordance with Sec. 11.2, unless paper records are specifically required.
(e) Computer systems (including hardware and software), controls, and attendant documentation maintained under this part shall be readily available for, and subject to, FDA inspection.
(a) For records required to be maintained but not submitted to the agency, persons may use electronic records in lieu of paper records or electronic signatures in lieu of traditional signatures, in whole or in part provided that the requirements of this part are met.
(b) For records submitted to the agency, persons may use electronic records in lieu of paper records or electronic signatures in lieu of traditional signatures, in whole or in part, provided that:
(1) The requirements of this part are met; and
(2) The document or parts of a document to be submitted have been identified in public docket No.92S-0251 as being the type of submission the agency accepts in electronic form. This docket will identify specifically what types of documents or parts of documents are acceptable for submission in electronic form without paper records and
the agency receiving unit(s) (e.g., specific center, office, division, branch) to which such submissions may be made.
Documents to agency receiving unit(s) not specified in the public docket will not be considered official if they are submitted in electronic form; paper forms of such documents will be considered official and must accompany any electronic records. Persons are expected to consult with the intended agency receiving unit for details on how (e.g., method of transmission, media, file formats, and technical protocols) and whether to proceed with the electronic submission.
Biometrics means a method of verifying an individual’s identity based on the measurement of the individual’s physical feature(s) or repeatable action(s) where those features and/or actions are both unique to that individual and measurable.
Closed system means an environment in which system access is controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system.
Digital signature means an electronic signature based upon cryptographic methods of the originator authentication, computed by using a set of rules and a set of parameters such that the identity of the signer and the integrity of the data can be verified.
Electronic record means any combination of text, graphics, data, audio, pictorial, or other information representation in digital form that is created, modified, maintained, archived, retrieved, or distributed by a computer system.
Electronic signature means a computer data compilation of any symbol or series of symbols executed, adopted, or authorized by an individual to be the legally binding equivalent of the individual handwritten signature.
Handwritten signature means the scripted name or legal mark of an individual handwritten by that individual and executed or adopted with the present intention to authenticate a writing in a permanent form. The act of signing with a writing or marking instruments such as a pen or stylus is preserved. The scripted name or legal mark, while conventionally applied to paper, may also be applied to other devices that capture the name or mark.
Open system means an environment in which system access is not controlled by persons who are responsible for the content of electronic records that are on the system.
Controls for closed systems
Persons who use closed systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and, when appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records, and to ensure that the signer cannot readily repudiate the signed record as not genuine. Such procedures and controls shall include the following:
(a) Validation of systems to ensure accuracy, reliability, consistent intended performance, and the ability to
discern invalid or altered records.
(b) The ability to generate accurate and complete copies of records in both human-readable and electronic form
suitable for inspection, review, and copying by the agency. Persons should contact the agency if there are any questions regarding the ability of the agency to perform such review and copying of the electronic records.
(c) Protection of records to enable they are accurate and ready for retrieval throughout the records retention period.
(d) Limiting system access to authorized individuals.
(e) Use of secure, computer-generated, time-stamped audit trails to independently record the date and time of
operator entries and actions that create, modify or delete electronic records. Record changes shall not obscure previously recorded information. Such audit trail documentation shall be retained for a period of at least as long as that is required for the subject electronic records and shall be available for agency review and copying.
(f) Use of operational system checks to enforce permitted sequencing of steps and events, as appropriate.
(g) Use of authority checks to ensure that only authorized individuals can use the system, electronically sign a
record, access the operation or computer system input or output device, alter a record, or perform the operation at hand.
(h) Use of device (e.g., terminal) checks to determine,as appropriate, the validity of the source of data input or operational instruction.
(i) Determination that persons who develop, maintain, or use electronic record/electronic signature systems
have the education, training, and experience to perform their assigned tasks.
(j) The establishment of, and adherence to, written policies that hold individuals accountable and responsible for actions initiated under their electronic signatures, in order to deter record and signature falsification.
(k) Use of appropriate controls over systems documentation including:
(1) Adequate controls over the distribution of, access to, and use of documentation for system operation
(2) Revision and change control procedures to maintain an audit trail that documents time-sequenced
development and modification of systems documentation.
Controls for open systems
Persons who use open systems to create, modify, maintain, or transmit electronic records shall employ procedures and controls designed to ensure the authenticity, integrity, and, as appropriate, the confidentiality of electronic records from the point of their creation to the point of their receipt. Additional measures such as document encryption and the use of appropriate digital signature standards to ensure, as necessary under the circumstances, record authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality.
(a) Signed electronic records shall contain information associated with the signing that clearly indicates all
of the following:
(1) The printed name of the signer;
(2) The date and time when the signature was executed; and
(3) The meaning (such as review, approval, responsibility, or authorship) associated with the signature.
(b) The items identified in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) of this section shall be subject to the same
controls as for electronic records and shall be included as part of any human-readable form of the
electronic record (such as electronic display or printout).
Electronic signatures and handwritten signatures executed to electronic records shall be linked to their respective
electronic records to ensure that the signatures cannot be excised, copied, or otherwise transferred to falsify an electronic record by ordinary means