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Proteins are high molecular weight polyhydroxy peptides containing alpha amino acids joined together by peptide linkage (bond) C―CO―Na. They contain ―C, H, N and S sometimes phosphor also.
The molecular weight may range from 6000 to many millions. Proteins are made up of amino acids which from the fundamental units so the properties and behavior of proteins depend on the amino acids present.
Classification: Proteins are classified into the following groups:

1. Simple Proteins:

Examples: Albumins, Globulins, Prolomines, Histamines

2. Conjugated Proteins:

Examples: Nucleo proteins, Phospho proteins, Glycoproteins, Lipoproteins, Flavoproteins, Metalloproteins

3. Derived Proteins:
(I) Primary derived proteins:

Example:  Fibrin, from fibrinogen, Meta proteins.

(II) Secondary proteins:

Example:  Proteoses, peptones, Peptides.

Simple proteins are those proteins which yield only one amino acid on hydrolysis.

(a) Albumin:
1. Soluble in water
2. Coagulated by heat
3. Precipitate at high salt concentration.
Example: Serum albumin, Egg albumin, Plasma albumin

(b) Globulin:
1. Insoluble in water
2. Coagulated by heat
3. Precipitate by half saturated salt solutions.
Example: Plasma globulin Serum globulin

(c) Glutelins:
1. Insoluble in water
2. Soluble in acids and acid base
3. Coagulated by heat
Example: Glutelin of wheat, oryzenin of rice

(d) Prolamines:
1. Insoluble in water,
2. Soluble in ethanol
3. Not Coagulated
Example: Gliadin of wheat, Zenin of maize

(e) Prolamines:
1. Soluble in water,
2. Not coagulated by heat
Example: Salmine and cryptinine in the sperm of certain fish


These contain simple proteins molecules united with nonprotein group called prothetic group and on hydrolysis they yield other non-proteinous substance in addition to amino acid on the basis of prosthetic group the conjugated proteins are classified as follows.

(a) Nucleo proteins: Proteins with nucleic acid as prothetic group.
Examples: Nucleo protamines and Nucleo histamines.

(b) Lipoproteins: Proteins with lipids (like fatty acids phospho lipids, cholesterol).
Example: Lipoprotein of blood

(c) Glycoproteins: Proteins with carbohydrates as prosthetic group.
Example: Mucin of saliva, Ovomucoid of egg yolk

(d) Phospho proteins: Proteins with phosphorous radical as prosthetic group.
Example: Casein of milk, Vitellin of egg

(e) Metalloproteins: Proteins with metal ions as the prosthetic group (i.e. Zn++, Co++, Fe++,Cu++,Mg++, Mn++ etc)

Example: Ferritin which contains iron (Fe++), Ceruloplasmin which contains (Cu++)

(f) Chromo proteins: Proteins with colored substance like porphyrin as the prosthetic group.
Example: Haemoglobin, Cytochrome


Then derived proteins are intermediate hydrolytic products which are formed by the action of physical chain, chemical or enzymatic agents on natural proteins.

(I) Primary derived proteins:

They are formed by the action of heat, acid, and alkalis on proteins denaturation occurs without hydrolytic cleavage of the protein molecule.

(a) Proteans:

Example: Fibrin from fibrinogen

(b) Meta proteins:

Example: Acid alkalis from meta protein

(c) Coagulated proteins:

Example: Cooked proteins

(II) Secondary proteins: They are formed by hydrolytic cleavage of proteins at their peptide linkage.

(a) Proteoses:

Example: Albumose, globumose

(b) Peptides:

Example: Glycyl-alanine, Leucyl-glutamic acid




About Pharmaceutical Guidanace

Mr. Shiv Kumar is the Author and founder of pharmaceutical guidance, he is a pharmaceutical Professional from India having more than 14 years of rich experience in pharmaceutical field. During his career, he work in quality assurance department with multinational company’s i.e Zydus Cadila Ltd, Unichem Laboratories Ltd, Indoco remedies Ltd, Panacea Biotec Ltd, Nectar life Science Ltd. During his experience, he face may regulatory Audit i.e. USFDA, MHRA, ANVISA, MCC, TGA, EU –GMP, WHO –Geneva, ISO 9001-2008 and many ROW Regularities Audit i.e.Uganda,Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. He is currently leading a regulatory pharmaceutical company as a head Quality. You can join him by Email, Facebook, Google+, Twitter and YouTube

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