- Scope:This Standard Operating Procedure is applicable to the formulation plant of Pharmaceutical company.
- Objective:To lay down a procedure for Operation of Effluent Treatment Plant.
- Concerned Technician/Operator shall be responsible for Operating the ETP as per this SOP.
- Officer/Executive-Engineering shall be responsible for implementation of the procedure as per this SOP.
- Accountability:Head-Engineering and QA shall be accountable for compliance of the SOP.
- Abbreviations and Definitions:
- ETP :Effluent Treatment Plant
- TDS:Total Dissolved Solids
- TSS :Total Suspended Solids
- MLSS : Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid
- COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand
- BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand
- SAFF: Submerged Aerated Fixed Film
- PSF: Pressure Sand Filter
- ACF: Activated Carbon Filter
- PAC : Poly Ammonium Chloride
- SDB :Sludge Drying Beds
- DAP : Di Ammonium Phosphate
- pH:pH is the parameter of expressing the hydrogen ion concentration or hydrogen ion activity.
- Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):Biochemical Oxygen Demand is defined as the amount of Oxygen required by the bacteria while stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic condition. BOD is the indirect measurement of carbon compounds by the direct measurement of oxygen consumed by the microbes at 200C for 5 days or 27 0C for 3 days for the complete oxidation of the organic matter.
- Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):The Chemical Oxygen Demand is used as a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic matter content of a sample that is susceptible to the oxidation by a strong chemical oxidant.
- Total Dissolved Solids (TDS):Total Dissolved Solids refer to any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions, dissolved solids in water.
- Total Suspended Solids (TSS):Total Suspended Solids are solids that are neither dissolved nor settled in the water. TSS can include a wide variety of materials such as silt, decaying plants and animal matter, industrial waste, sewage etc. They reduce light penetration which in turn reduces the ability of algae to produce food and oxygen. When the water slows down and enters the reservoir, the suspended sediments settles out and drops to the bottom, this process called siltation.
- Domestic Effluent:
- Domestic effluent from the toilets and urinals is received to the septic tank and overflow of septic tank receives to the collection tank, from where it pumps to the Oil and Grease Tank and then goes to the Equalization Tanks by gravity. From Equilisation tank it pumps to the SAFF Reactor for the further biological and tertiary treatment.
- Oil and Grease Tank purpose: The thin layer of oil or scum being removed periodically by manual procedure, collected in the drums and stored in the Hazardous pit.
- Purpose Equalization Tank : Equalize effluent in terms of hydraulically and organically, collection and pumping for next treatment.
- Industrial Effluent:
- The Industrial/Process effluent from the manufacturing process reached the collection tank, from where it pumps to the Oil and Grease Tank and then goes to the Equalization Tank by gravity.
- Purpose of Oil and Grease Tank:
- The thin layer of oil or scum being removed periodically by manual procedures collected in the drums and stored in the Hazardous pit.
- Purpose of Equalization Tank:
- Collection, Neutralization cum Equalization in terms of hydraulically and organically of the raw effluent.
- Check the raw effluent pH from the equalization tank and add the neutralizing chemical, Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) till the pH 9-9.5.
- Switch “ON” the raw effluent Pump and allow the effluent to mix with in the Equalization tank for continuously and pump the effluent to the static Flash Mixer cum Flocculator.
- Physico-Chemical Treatment:
- The physico-chemical treatment comprising with the neutralizing, chemical coagulation and precipitation.
- Chemical Preparation:
- Prepare the 1% alum or 0.5 % PAC in the tank.
- 1% Alum: 1kg of alum dissolved per 100 litres of Solvent.
- 0.5% PAC: 0.5 kg of PAC dissolved per 100 litres of Solvent.
- Operate the Dosing pump and maintain the pH 6.5-7.5 of the flash mixer cum flocculator.
- The dosing of PAC done for settlement of discrete suspended particles.
- Purpose of Dosing Pump:
- To dose Alum or PAC in the flash mixer cum flocculator.
- The effluent after adjusting pH shall be sent to Primary Clarifier by gravity. The solids settle down at the bottom through the tube settler. The supernatant shall be sent to SAFF Reactor by gravity. The settled sludge at the bottom shall be sent to the SDB.
- Purpose of Flash Mixer cum Flocculator:
- To make a proper flocculation and increase the floc size of the particles for better sludge settlement.
- Purpose of Primary Tube Settler:
- Clarification of Primary Sludge and Chemically Treated Water: The primary tube settler overflow goes to the SAFF reactor for Biological Treatment .The air purge through the air blower.
- Switch “ON” the Air Blower for supplying the diffused air from bottom. The aerobic bacteria gets adhere on the plastic media which is submersed in the SAFF reactor. The suspended nature MLSS shall also be observed which settled in the Secondary Tube Settler and gets recycle back to the SAFF reactor.
- Purpose of SAFF Reactor:
- SAFF means Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Reactor which is the type of the aerobic process. The air is being supplied through the air blower. The aerobic microbes gets adhere on the fixed film media. In presence of oxygen, the micro-organism degrade the organic matter and BOD gets removed significantly and meets the desired parameters of BOD.
- Purpose of Air Blower:
- To supply the air in the SAFF reactor.
- Addition of DAP and Urea:
- Daily app. 300 gm DAP and 150 gm urea to be added in the SAFF reactor for proper growth of the MLSS.
- Switch “ON” the Sludge Pump and keep on recalculating to the SAFF Reactor. Remove excess sludge to the SDB.
- Purpose of Sludge Recirculation Pump:
- Recycle the biomass to the SAFF Reactor and desludge to the SDB.
- The homogenized effluent shall be sent to Secondary Tube Settler by gravity.
- The supernatant water shalll be sent to PSF feed sump.
- Switch “ON” the PSF feed pumps and send the treated water to PSF and ACF. Do the back wash if pressure increases more than 3 Kg/cm2. The Backwash water goes to SDB.
- Collect the filtered water from ACF in to the treated water tank.
- Parameters like pH, TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, Oil and Grease etc shall be analyzed in the ETP lab.
- The treated water shall meet the following parameter.
Treated Effluent Parameter
|1||pH||–||6.5 to 8.5|
|6||Oil and Grease||mg/l||< 10|
|1||pH||–||6.0 – 8.0|
|2||TDS||mg/l||500 – 600|
|4||BOD||mg/l||100 – 300|
|5||COD||mg/l||200 – 1000|
|6||Oil and Grease||mg/l||10 – 50|
- Forms and Annexure:
- Log book for Effluent Treatment plant : Annexure-I
- Master Copy : Documentation Cell
- Controlled Copies : Engineering, Quality Assurance, ETP Laboratory
Reason for Revision
Mr. Shiv Kumar is the Author and founder of pharmaceutical guidance, he is a pharmaceutical Professional from India having more than 14 years of rich experience in pharmaceutical field.
During his career, he work in quality assurance department with multinational company’s i.e Zydus Cadila Ltd, Unichem Laboratories Ltd, Indoco remedies Ltd, Panacea Biotec Ltd, Nectar life Science Ltd. During his experience, he face may regulatory Audit i.e. USFDA, MHRA, ANVISA, MCC, TGA, EU –GMP, WHO –Geneva, ISO 9001-2008 and many ROW Regularities Audit i.e.Uganda,Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. He is currently leading a regulatory pharmaceutical company as a head Quality. You can join him by Email, Facebook, Google+, Twitter and YouTube